Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Chlorite dismutase

Photosynthesis is not the only dioxygen-evolving biological process. For instance, chlorite dismutase (Cld; EC catalyses the production of O2 from chlorite (1):

ClO2 → Cl + O2(1)

The reaction (1) is not really disproportionation, and NC-IUBMB made a valid point that the term “chlorite dismutase” is “misleading”. Even so, the NC-IUBMB-approved, sorry, “accepted” name “chlorite O2-lyase” for an oxidoreductase is equally absurd; I am going to ignore it.

Chlorite dismutase from Azospira oryzae exists as a homohexamer [1] while Cld from Dechloromonas aromatica [2] and enzyme from Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii [3] are homopentamers.

The active site contains a single haem group [Fe(ppIX)] coordinated by a proximal histidine residue. Goblirsch et al. [2] propose the mechanism where the reaction of chlorite within the distal pocket of Cld generates hypochlorite (ClO) and a compound I intermediate [Fe(ppIX)O] (1a). Then ClO rebounds with compound I forming the chloride and dioxygen (1b):

ClO2 + [Fe(ppIX)] → ClO + [Fe(ppIX)O](1a)
ClO + [Fe(ppIX)O] → Cl + O2 + [Fe(ppIX)](1b)
  1. de Geus, D.C., Thomassen, E.A.J., Hagedoorn, P.-L., Pannu, N.S., van Duijn, E. and Abrahams, J.P. (2009) Crystal structure of chlorite dismutase, a detoxifying enzyme producing molecular oxygen. J. Mol. Biol. 387, 192—206.
  2. Goblirsch, B.R., Streit, B.R., DuBois, J.L. and Wilmot, C.W. (2010) Structural features promoting dioxygen production by Dechloromonas aromatica chlorite dismutase. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 15, 879—888.
  3. Kostan, J., Sjöblom, B., Maixner, F., Mlynek, G., Furtmüller, P.G., Obinger, C., Wagner, M., Daims, H. and Djinović-Carugo, K. (2010) Structural and functional characterisation of the chlorite dismutase from the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii”: Identification of a catalytically important amino acid residue. J. Struct. Biol. 172, 331—342.

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